OUR JUST CAUSE
FACTS ABOUT THE WAR FOR
ABBREVIATED AND REVISED EDITION
PREPARED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF
THE ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE
PROFESSOR W. L. GRANT
QUEEN'S UNIVERSITY, KINGSTON, CANADA
MR. & MRS. ARCHIBALD COLQUHOUN
AMMUNITION FOR CIVILIANS— I.
OUR JUST CAUSE
FACTS ABOUT THE WAR FOR
ABBREVIATED AND REVISED EDITION
PREPARED UNDER THE AUSPICES OF
THE ROYAL COLONIAL INSTITUTE
PROFESSOR W. L. GRANT
OF KINGSTON UNIVERSITY, CANADA
MR. & MRS. ARCHIBALD COLQUHOUN
I. Why are we at War ? - - - - 3
(a) Because of the "swelled head" of the German
militarist classes, who have stampeded the country.
The ruthless theory of these men considered war to
be a blessing and the best means of advancing pro-
(b) Because of our plighted word to France, in virtue of
which she had concentrated her fleet in the Mediter-
ranean and left her northern coast defenceless, save
for our aid - - - - - - 7
(c) Because of our obligations to Belgium - - 9
(d) For the safety of ourselves and of our Empire - 13
(e) In the cause of civilization and liberty and of
international law, which the Germans have shamelessly
violated - ...... 14
II. Unanimity of Opinion in Great Britain and Ireland 24
(1) Liberal ; (2) Unionist ; (3) Irish ; (4) Labour Party ;
(5) Socialist ; (6) The Churches ; (7) Nonconformist ;
(8) Lord Roberts - - - - 24-36
III. Unanimous Support in the Dominions and Crown
Colonies - - - - - - - 37
IV. Unanimous Support of India - - - - 42
V. Opinion in the United States - - - 46
VI. Various Questions which have been Asked, and
Answers to Them - - - - - 51
(a) Could we have stopped the War? - - - 51
(b) Could we have kept out of the War ? - - 52
(c) Have we not done enough ? - - - - 52
(d) Is not the Fleet enough ? - - - - 54
(e) Was not the War forced on by Russia ? "55
(/) Are we not fighting for the barbarism of Servia
and Russia against the culture of Germany ? - - 56
(g) Have we not called in heathen Japan against Chris-
tian Germany ? - - - - - '57
(h) Should we be any worse off if Germany won ? - 58
German Views of British Soldiers - - - 62
Why we must Fight to a Finish - - 63
FACTS ABOUT THE WAR
WHY ARE WE AT WAR ?
(a) Because of the " swelled head" of the German militarist
classes, who have stampeded the country. The ruthless
theory of these men considered war to be a blessing and
the best means of advancing progress.
" It has always been the weary, spiritless, and ex-
hausted ages which have played with the dream of
" The whole development of modern State wisdom
tends to crush smaller States, and in this sense Germany
has very severe tasks to face, for in the parcelling up
and distribution of land outside of Europe Germany has
always fallen short. And our very existence as a Great
nation depends on the question whether we can become
a power across the seas.
" Germany will be happy when she has received
her due, and possesses the Rhine in its entirety."
(This involves the possession by her of Belgium and
" If our Empire has the courage to follow an inde-
pendent colonial policy with determination, a collision
of our interests and those of England is unavoidable. It
was natural and logical that the new Great Power of
Central Europe had to settle accounts with all great
Powers. We have settled our accounts with Austria-
4 Facts about the War
Hungary, with France, and with Russia. The last
settlement— the settlement with England— will
probably be the lengthiest and most difficult. ,,
H. Von Treitschke, for thirty years, till
his death in 1896, the foremost German
historical writer and publicist.
" In its final aims the Peace movement is not only as
Utopian, but as dangerous as Socialism."
Privy Councillor Baron Von Stengel,
German delegate to the first Hague Con-
It is sometimes said that it is only the statesmen of
Germany that are Anti-British.
" Once during the Boer War ... I remonstrated with
a member of the Reichstag on account of his attacks on
England, which did not exactly tend to make our difficult
position any easier. The worthy man replied in a tone of
conviction : ' It is my right and my duty, as a member
of the Reichstag, to express the feelings of the German
nation. You, as a Minister, I hope, will take care that
my opinions do no mischief abroad.' "
Prince von Buelow, for many years, till
1910, Imperial Chancellor, the highest
office, save the Kaiser's, in the German
The theory that only a small section of Prussian
opinion had been tainted with militarism has been dis-
pelled by the action of men of science, philosophers,
writers, and professors. A manifesto signed by ninety-
two of the best-known men in learning and literature has
been issued, from which the following is an extract :
" It is not true that the fight against our so-called
militarism is not, as our enemies hypocritically declare
Facts about the War 5
a fight against our culture. Without German mili-
tarism German culture would long ago have been
swept off the face of the earth.
14 War is not merely a necessary element in the life
of nations, but an indispensable factor of culture, in
which a true civilized nation finds the highest expression
of strength and vitality.
" The efforts directed towards the abolition of war
must not only be termed foolish, but absolutely immoral,
and must be stigmatized as unworthy of the human race.
11 It must further be remembered that every success in
foreign policy, especially if obtained by a demonstration
of military strength, not only heightens the power of the
State in foreign affairs, but adds to the reputation of the
Government at home, and thus enables it better to fulfil
its moral aims and civilizing duties.
44 A pacific agreement with England is, after all,
a will-o'-the-wisp which no serious German statesman
would trouble to follow. We must always keep the
possibility of war with England before our eyes, and
arrange our political and military plans accordingly.
11 We have fought in the last great wars for our national
union and our position among the Powers of Europe;
we now must decide whether we wish to develop into and
maintain a World Empire, and procure for German spirit
and German ideas that fit recognition which has been
hitherto withheld from them.
" In the first place, our political position would be
considerably consolidated if we could finally get rid of the
standing danger that France will attack us on a favour-
able occasion, so soon as we find ourselves involved in
complications elsewhere. In one way or another we
6 Facts about the War
must square our account with France if we wish for
a free hand in our international policy. This is the first and
foremost condition of a sound German policy, and since
the hostility of France once for all cannot be removed by
peaceful overtures, the matter must be settled by force
of arms. France must be so completely crushed that she
can never again come across our path.
" We must remain conscious in all such eventualities
that we cannot, under any circumstances, avoid fighting
for our position in the world, and that the all-important
point is, not to postpone that war as long as possible,
but to bring it on under the most favourable conditions
General F. von Bernhardi (died in
1913), a prominent German General, high
up on the General Staff, and a close friend
of the Kaiser.
" When you meet the foe you will defeat him. No
quarter will be given, no prisoners will be taken.
Let all who fall into your hands be at your mercy. Just
as the Huns a thousand years ago, under the leadership
of Attila, gained a reputation in virtue of which they
still live in historical tradition, so may the name of
Germany become known in such a manner in China
that no Chinaman will ever again dare to look askance
at a German."
Address of the Kaiser to the German
troops leaving for Pekin in July, 1900.
The reference to Attila was commonly sup-
pressed, but the rest of the quotation was
circulated on postcards throughout Ger-
many. Two days later the modern Attila
preached a sermon on board the Hohen-
Facts about the War 7
" Much harm has resulted from the fact that in recent
years we, as well as others, have forgotten that for now
just 200 years Europe has had only one stedfast and,
in its interests, astonishingly tough enemy — England. . . .
Not to have recognized this thoroughly at the right time
has been the cause of many catastrophes in Europe.
To these catastrophes belongs also this present un-
natural alliance between England, France, and Russia.
It would have been avoided if a clear insight had only
once made known in Europe what a great common
European interest exists against England, which has
appropriated to herself the best and richest countries
overseas. Instead of this, the old state of things has
again come to pass, that the peoples of the Con-
tinent cut themselves to pieces in wars from which
England solely and alone derives the advantage. . . .
It lies deep in the essence of the English power-idea
that it cannot bear a strong Continent, and, above all,
one standing under a unified leadership. For then her
Colonies would be torn from her and her income
Cologne Gazette, August 27, 1914.
(b) Because of our plighted word to France, in virtue of which
she had concentrated her fleet in the Mediterranean, and
left her northern coasts defenceless, save for our aid.
11 The French fleet is now in the Mediterranean. The
northern and western coasts of France are absolutely
undefended. When the French fleet comes to be con-
centrated in the Mediterranean, there is a very different
situation from what it used to be, because the friendship
which grew up between the two countries had given
8 Facts about the War
them a sense of security that there was nothing to be
feared from us. Her coasts are absolutely undefended,
her fleet is in the Mediterranean, and has been for some
years concentrated there, because of the feeling of confi-
dence and friendship which has existed between the two
" My own feeling is this, that if a foreign fleet engaged
in a war which France had not sought, and in which she
had not been the aggressor, came down the English
Channel and bombarded and battered the unprotected
coasts of France, we could not stand aside and see the
thing going on practically within sight of our eyes, with
our arms folded, looking on dispassionately doing nothing,
and I believe that would be the feeling of this country.
There are times when one's own individual feeling makes
one feel that if the circumstances actually did arise it
would be a feeling that would spread with irresistible
force throughout the land — in face of a thing happened."
Sir E. Grey, in House of Commons,
" We have had for many years a long-standing friend-
ship with France. . . . How far that friendship entails
obligations ... let every man look into his own heart and
his own feelings and construe that obligation for himself. ,,
Sir E. Grey, in House of Commons,
" I am authorized to give an assurance that, if the
German fleet comes into the Channel or through the
North Sea to undertake hostile operations against
French coasts or shipping, the British fleet will give all
the protection in its power.
Facts about the War 9
"This assurance is, of course, subject to the policy of
His Majesty's Government receiving the support of
Sir E. Grey to the French Ambas-
sador, August 2.
(c) Because oj our obligations to Belgium.
" Treaty between Great Britain, Austria, France,
Prussia, and Russia on the one part, and Belgium on
the other. Article I., Her Majesty the Queen of the
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, His
Majesty the Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary and
Bohemia, His Majesty the King of the French, His
Majesty the King of Prussia, and His Majesty the
Emperor of all the Russias declare that the articles
hereunto annexed, and forming the tenor of the treaty
concluded this day between His Majesty the King of the
Belgians and His Majesty the King of the Netherlands,
Grand Duke of Luxemburg, are considered as having
the same force and validity as if they were textually
inserted in the present Act, and that they are thus placed
under the guarantee of their said Majesties. Extract
from annex : Article VII. Belgium, within the limits
specified in Articles I., II., and IV., shall form an
independent and perpetually neutral State. It shall
be bound to observe such neutrality towards all other
(Note. — Articles I., II., and IV., which are referred
to in Article VII., define the provinces and territorial
limits of Belgium.)
By the Conference of the Powers at the Hague in 1907,
signed by Germany, a " Convention respecting the Rights
io Facts about the War
and Duties of Neutral Powers " was drawn up, of which
the first two articles are as follows :
i. The territory of neutral Powers is inviolable.
2. Belligerents are forbidden to move across the terri-
tory of a neutral Power troops or convoys, either of
munitions of war or supplies.
"The governing factor is the Treaty of 1839, but this
is a treaty with a history — a history accumulated since.
In 1870, when there was war between France and Ger-
many, the question of the neutrality of Belgium arose,
and various things were said. Amongst other things,
Prince Bismarck gave an assurance to Belgium
that, confirming his verbal assurance, he gave in writing
a declaration which he said was superfluous in reference to
the Treaty in existence — that the German Confedera-
tion and its allies would respect the neutrality of
Belgium, it being always understood that that neutrality
would be respected by the other belligerent Powers. That
is valuable as a recognition in 1870 on the part of Germany
of the sacredness of these treaty rights. . . . The Treaty
is an old Treaty — 1839. That was the view taken of it
in 1870. It is one of those treaties which are founded,
not only on consideration for Belgium which benefits
under the Treaty, but in the interests of those who
guarantee the neutrality of Belgium. The honour and
interests are at least as strong to-day as they were in
Sir E. Grey, in House of Commons,
August 3, 1914.
" I telegraphed at the same time in similar terms to
both Paris and Berlin, to say that it was essential for us
Facts about the War 1 1
to know whether the French and German Governments,
respectively, were prepared to undertake an engagement
to respect the neutrality of Belgium. I got from the
French Government this :
" * The French Government are resolved to respect the
neutrality of Belgium, and it would only be in the event
of some other Power violating that neutrality that
France might find herself under the necessity, in order
to assure the defence of her security, to act otherwise.
This assurance has been given several times. The
President of the Republic spoke of it to the King of the
Belgians, and the French Minister at Brussels has
spontaneously renewed the assurance to the Belgian
Minister of Foreign Affairs to-day.'
" From the German Government the reply was :
" ' The Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs could not
possibly give an answer before consulting the Emperor
and the Chancellor.'
11 Sir Edward Goschen, to whom I have said it was
important to have an answer soon, said he hoped the
answer would not be too long delayed. The German
Minister for Foreign Affairs then gave Sir Edward
Goschen to understand that he rather doubted whether
they could answer at all, as any reply they might give
could not fail, in the event of war, to have the un-
desirable effect of disclosing to a certain extent part of
their plan of campaign."
Sir E. Grey, in House of Commons
11 Gentlemen, we are now in a state of necessity, and
necessity knows no law ! Our troops have occupied
Luxemburg, and perhaps are already on Belgian soil.
12 Facts about the War
Gentlemen, that is contrary to the dictates of inter-
national law. It is true that the French Government
has declared at Brussels that France is willing to
respect the neutrality of Belgium as long as her
opponent respects it. We knew, however, that France
stood ready for the invasion. France could wait,
but we could not wait. A French movement upon
our flank upon the Lower Rhine might have been
disastrous. So we were compelled to override the just
protest of the Luxemburg and Belgian Governments.
The wrong — I speak openly — that we are committing
we will endeavour to make good as soon as our military
goal has been reached. Anybody who is threatened, as
we are threatened, and is fighting for his highest posses-
sions can have only one thought — how he is to hack his
way through I"
Von Bethmann-Hollweg, the Imperial
Chancellor to the Reichstag, on August 4.
"I found the Chancellor very agitated. His Excel-
lency at once began a harangue which lasted for about
twenty minutes. He said that the step taken by His
Majesty's Government was terrible to a degree ; just
for a word — ' Neutrality ' — a word which in war time
had so often been disregarded — just for a scrap of paper
Great Britain was going to war. ... I protested
strongly against that statement, and said that, in the
same way as he and Herr von Jagow wished me to
understand that for strategical reasons it was a matter of
life and death to Germany to advance through Belgium
and violate the latter's neutrality, so I would wish him
to understand that it was, so to speak, a matter of * life
Facts about the War 13
and death ' for the honour of Great Britain that she
should keep her solemn engagement to do her utmost to
defend Belgium's neutrality if attacked. That solemn
compact simply had to be kept, or what confidence could
anyone have in engagements given by Great Britain in
the future ? The Chancellor said, < But at what price
will that compact have been kept?' Has the
British Government thought of that ? I hinted to His
Excellency as plainly as I could that fear of con-
sequences could hardly be regarded as an excuse for
breaking solemn engagements."
British Ambassador's report of his last
conversation with German Chancellor,
(d) For the safety of ourselves and of our Empire.
" The old century saw a German Europe. The new
one shall see a German world."
Koloniale Zeitschvift, January 18, 1900.
" The trident must be in our hands."
" England can employ her regular army in a Con-
tinental war only so long as all is quiet in the Colonies.
This fact brings into prominence how important it will
be, should war break out, to threaten England in her
colonial possessions, and especially in Egypt."
" We mean to defend our colonies, and to acquire
somewhere agricultural colonies. ... In order to attain
this modest aim, we want to-day a large fleet. . . . We
must wish at any price that a German country, peopled
with twenty to thirty million Germans, may grow up in
14 Facts about the War
Southern Brazil. . . . We do not mean to press for an
economic alliance with Holland, but if they are wise,
if they do not want to lose their colonies one day, as
Spain did, they will hasten to seek our alliance. "
Professor Schmoller, Berlin University,
Member of Prussian Privy Council and
Prussian Upper Chamber (lecture delivered
at Berlin, Strasburg, and Hanover).
11 The possession of South Africa offers greater
advantages in every respect than the possession
of Southern Brazil. If we look on the map, our
German colonies look very good positions for attack."
Die Grenzboten, April 15, 1897.
" England insists on being the only great commercial
Power of the world, and is only willing to allow other
nations the favour of owning small fragments as enclaves
wedged in helplessly between her possessions. This is
what we neither can nor intend to tolerate. As England
cannot be expected to give way peaceably, and as her
great naval power cannot be overwhelmed by a single
State, the real remedy will be an alliance against her of
all her rivals."
Hans Delbruck, Professor of History in
Berlin, North American Review, January, 1900.
For further points under this heading see Section VII.
(e) In the cause of civilization and of liberty, and of inter-
national law, which the Germans have shamelessly
German violations of international law :
1. Invasion of Belgium and of Luxemburg. See
Facts about the War 15
2. Bombardment of unfortified towns, such as
Malines, Termonde, Louvain.
A correspondent telegraphs from Antwerp :
" I have returned from Malines, which has been bom-
barded for the third time, although it was an open town
without the least defence.
" On Sunday, at 9.30 a.m., people were returning from
church when a shell fell in the middle of a group, killing
several persons. The remainder flea to a cafe, and
shortly afterwards another shell exploded in the cafe, and
several persons were wounded. The rain of shells con-
tinued at the rate of fifty an hour. The first fell on the
railway-station at eight o'clock, and then others fell in
the Place de la Gare and in the neighbourhood, setting
fire to the station, the barracks, a cabinet-maker's factory,
the establishment of the Little Sisters of the Poor,
the National Stamp Manufactory, and several private
"Other houses collapsed in the street, completely
blocking traffic. Fort Waelhem and Wavre replied
vigorously until the evening.
" The Cathedral of St. Rombaut is almost completely
destroyed, and the tower is seriously injured."
Central News, Amsterdam, September 28.
On Saturday, September 2, an airship dropped four
bombs on Deynze, described by Baedeker as " a small
town with an old church." It is an open town of no
military importance. The principal building is the
hospital of the Sisters of St. Paul, which at the time
flew the Red Cross flag and sheltered some 200 people,
aged, sick, or orphans, with the Sisters of the Order.
Facts about the War
The bombs wrecked the dormitory of the Sisters of
Mercy, and that none were killed was nothing less than
a miracle. The incident is described by an eye-witness
in the Morning Post, September 29.
Such conduct is directly contrary to Article 25 of the
Hague Convention of 1907, which was signed by Ger-
many, and which reads : " It is forbidden to attack or to
bombard by any means whatsoever unfortified towns,
villages, dwellings, or buildings."
3. Levying of indemnities on cities in countries still
Up to the present the Germans have demanded a total
indemnity of more than ^"28,000,000 from the towns and
districts they have occupied. The published demands
are as follows :
Antwerp... ... ... ... ... ^20,000,000
Brussels ... ... ... ... ... 8,000,000
Li&ge ... ... ... ... ... 2,000,000
Louvain ... ... ... ... ... 4,000
Province of Brabant ... ... ... 18,000,000
Amiens, Roubaix and Tourcoing, each 40,000
Smaller amounts have been asked from other towns.
This is contrary to Articles 49 and 50 of the Hague
Convention of 1907, signed by Germany, which read :
" Money contributions upon territory occupied may be
levied only for the needs of the army or of the adminis-
tration of the district."
" No collective punishment or fine may be imposed I
upon any body of people because of the action off
Facts about the War ij
individuals for which they could not be considered as
4. Laying of mines, not to defend harbours, which
is lawful, but on the high seas, and along trade
This is contrary to Article 2 of Convention VIII. of
the Hague (1907), by which " it is forbidden to lay auto-
matic contact mines oft the ports and coasts of the
enemy, with the sole object of intercepting commercial
navigation. ,, It is true that Germany did not sign this
section without reservations.
When the subject of mines was being discussed Baron
Marschall von Bieberstein, the German delegate, said :
" A belligerent who lays mines assumes a very heavy
responsibility towards neutrals and peaceful shipping.
On that point we are all agreed. No one will resort
to such means unless for military reasons of an
absolutely urgent character. But military acts are
not governed solely by principles of international law.
There are other factors. Conscience, good sense, and
the sentiment of duty imposed by principles of humanity
will be the surest guide for the conduct of sailors, and
will constitute the most effective guarantee against
abuses. The officers of the German Navy, I emphati-
cally affirm, will always fulfil in the strictest fashion the
duties which emanate from the unwritten law of humanity
On October 27 the Manchester Commerce (5,363 tons)
was wrecked by a mine twenty miles north of Tory
Island, on the Irish Coast, and her captain and thirteen
of the crew drowned. Many trawlers have been lost in
1 8 Facts about the War
the North Sea by contact with floating mines, and the
existence of such mines on trade routes is against the
terms of the Hague Convention, but the laying of a
mine-field in the Atlantic, in a region removed from the
operations of the German Fleet, is an even more open and
deadly breach of Article 2.
5. Atrocities upon defenceless and unoffending
Such atrocities are of course contrary not only to the
Fourth Convention of the Hague Conference of 1907,
but also to the elementary dictates of humanity. They
have taken place in the heat of battle in all wars, but
those of Germany in the present struggle have been so
numerous and systematic that attention must be called
to them. The most notorious is the sack of the town of
Louvain was a University town, containing many
ancient historic buildings, a famous Library, Cathedral,
and Hotel de Ville. On August 26 German troops,
repulsed by Belgians, entered the town, which was
already occupied by a German garrison. They after-
wards declared that they were fired on by the towns-
people, but the latter declared that all their arms had
been given up some days before, and that in the con-
fusion the German garrison fired on their comrades.
In any case the Germans deliberately fired a greater
part of the town, burning the inhabitants in their houses,
and shooting others indescriminately. Bodies of civilians
lay about in the streets and squares, and of the survivors
several thousand males were sent as prisoners of war to
Facts about the War 19
The Bombardment of Rheims.
The storm of indignation roused by this led the
German Goverment to make excuses. The value of
these may be judged from the following specimen sent
to Copenhagen from Berlin :
1. Rheims is a fortress and a French base for defence.
Hence the bombardment is the fault of the French.
2. French guns were posted behind the Cathedral.
3. The white flag was hoisted on the Cathedral, but
the French used one of the towers for observation.
4. The damage done is insignificant, and can easily be
The last " excuse " may be supplemented by the
following from the Frankfurter Zeitung :
" If the German armies, in their victorious advance,
are obliged to drive the enemy not only from armoured
forts, but also from ancient homes of culture, we have at
least the comforting certainty that the dearly bought
victory will bring for the joy and glory of the human
race greater and more splendid works than the towering
churches of the Middle Ages, which are being needlessly
endangered by the heirs of their founders.''
There appeared in the same journal two days later,
on September 24, an article on the destruction of Louvain
from the pen of Professor F. Kluge, Professor of German
Language and Literature at Freiburg University, under
the title " Superfluous Sentimentality." In this article
the German scholar makes light of the loss to the world
of the library of Louvain University, and gives ex-
pression to the same unquestioning confidence in Ger-
man genius to raise a library of greater value in its
20 Facts about the War
place. The Germans have always been considered the
most sentimental of all peoples, yet the Freiburg Pro-
fessor writes :
"We must not allow ourselves to be infected even by
genuine and true sentimentality. All the wounds that
cruel war inflicts must heal again in peace."
The following letter from M. Arthur Terwagne, a
brother of the Deputy of Antwerp, gives a detailed account
of the fate of Dinant :
" It will be remembered that on August 15 a tre-
mendous battle was fought in the streets of the town
between the French and the Germans. The town
suffered very little during this battle, only a few houses
afterwards bearing signs of the bombardment, which
lasted thirteen hours. During the following days the
French retired on to the left bank of the Meuse. In the
night of August 21a German armoured motor-car entered
Dinant by the Rue Saint-Jacques and, without the
slightest provocation, began to fire on the houses in the
street. A woman sleeping in her bed was killed, and her
child, which was at her side, was mortally wounded.
Startled by the noise of the firing, a man and his wife
opened the door of their house. They were immediately
done to death by Uhlans. An employee of the gasworks
who was returning from his work was killed on his door-
step. The assassins — for one cannot call them soldiers —
set fire to several houses before they bravely withdrew.
" But these savage acts were only the prelude. . . .
On the following day large masses of troops arrived and
forced open the doors of the houses and murdered every-
one they found within. There was Victor Poncelet done
to death in the presence of his wife and of his six children ;
Facts about the War 21
there were the members of the staff of the firm of Capelle
murdered in cold blood. In every house a fresh crime
was committed, while the women were driven from their
beds and taken, half-naked, to a monastery, where they
were kept for three days with hardly any food, half-dead
with hunger and fear.
" Over 200 men and lads — old men of seventy-five and
boys of twelve and fourteen — fathers and sons together,
were driven on to the Place d'Armes. In order that the
work might be carried out more quickly a machine gun
was brought up. It was here that Xavier Wasseige, the
manager of the Banque de la Meuse, was killed, together
with his two sons, and here, too, died Camille Fisette and
his little boy, aged twelve.
"The fate of the male inhabitants having thus been
settled, the Germans set to work methodically on the
destruction of the town, using bombs to set fire to the
houses. Soon nothing but a heap of ashes remained."
Published in Le Matin, September 26.
" I never realized what an awful thing war is. You
cannot imagine at home the horror of it. I am in a
small village on the extreme left, and can see the horrible
cruelty of the Germans to the inhabitants. We have got
three girls in the trenches with us, who came to us for
protection. One had no clothes on, having been out-
raged by the Germans. I have given her my shirt and
divided my rations among them. In consequence I feel
rather hungry, having had nothing for thirty-two hours,
except some milk chocolate.
u We have been hard at the Germans all day (now
8 p.m.), and have successfully driven them back. Our
men's shooting is wonderful and accurate. The Germans
22 Facts about the War
collapse like ninepins under it. The slaughter is
awful. ... I started this morning with fifty men in
my trench, and now have twenty-three and no non-
commissioned officers. They are wonderfully cheery.
I have been hit twice ; one took the heel of my boot off,
and one through my shoulder, which is rather sore, so I
must have it dressed. . . .
" Another poor girl has just come in, having had both
her breasts cut off. Luckily, I caught the Uhlan officer
in the act, and with a rifle at 300 yards killed him. And
now she is with us, but, poor girl, I am afraid she will
die. She is very pretty, and only about nineteen, and
only has her skirt on. . . ."
Letter from a British officer to his father,
published in the Times, September 12. The
name and regiment of the officer was
procured by the Times before publication.
A common practice in both the German and Austrian
armies is the taking of prominent civilians as hostages,
whose lives are to be forfeited should the rest of the
civilian population act, or be supposed to have acted, to
the detriment of the invader. This method of punishing
the innocent is a revival of medieval barbarism.
The following agreeable announcement was posted at
the Belfry and the Town Hall, Tournai, on Sep-
tember 23 :
"To our Fellow-Citizens.
"The military authorities have informed us that the
telegraphic and telephonic communications of the
German Army have been cut.
"The Army has therefore immediately seized as
hostages Monsieur Louis Caty, Councillor (Prefectoral),
Facts about the War 23
Monsieur Victor Maistrian, Deputy Mayor, Jean
l'Honneaux, Professor at the Athen6e Royale.
"The citizens are answerable with their heads as well
as the hostages for the public tranquillity and security,
as well as the maintenance and protection of the railways,
telegraphic and telephonic communications. The authors
of any attempt on these communications will be im-
mediately put to death.
"We therefore earnestly beg our fellow-citizens to
abstain from any act which could possibly be regarded
as calculated to interrupt the communications mentioned.
" The lives of the hostages would certainly be sacrificed
"The Councillor (Prefectoral).
" Georges Heupgen.
"The Burgomaster, Jean Lescats.
" Mons, September 22, 1914.
"The Officer Commanding the lines of communi-
cation, Maubeuge — Mons.
" Approved, Mons, September 22, 1914."
Extract from Proclamation by officer in command of
German forces occupying the Commune of Grivegnee,
near Li&ge. (Issued to British papers by Official Press
Bureau, September 24).
" (6) I shall select, outside the lists given me, persons
who from noon on one day to noon on the next have to
stay as hostages. If the relieving hostage does not
appear punctually, the first hostage will be detained for
another twenty-four hours in the fort. After a second
twenty-four hours he may be shot if his substitute does
24 Facts about the War
" (7) In the first class among hostages will be placed
the priests, the burgomasters, and the members of the
Administration of the communes."
On this subject the following official German state-
ment was issued :
" The only means of preventing surprise attacks
from the civil population has been to interfere
with unrelenting severity, and to create examples
which by their frightfulness would be a warning
to the whole country."
In a telegram to the President of the United States
the Kaiser said :
" My heart bleeds when I think that such measures
should have become inevitable."
UNANIMITY OF OPINION IN GREAT BRITAIN
In no other conflict, not even in the war against
Napoleon, has British opinion been so unanimous.
Party strife is at an end.
" If I am asked what we are fighting for I can reply
in two sentences. In the first place, to fulfil a solemn
international obligation . . . secondly, we are fighting
to vindicate the principle which, in these days, when
material force sometimes seems to be the dominant
factor and influence in the development of mankind,
Facts about the War 25
that small nationalities are not to be crushed, in defiance
of international good faith, by the arbitrary will of a
strong and overmastering Power."
Mr. Asquith, House of Commons, August 7.
" The ultimate and not far distant aim of
Germany was to crush the independence and the
autonomy of the free States of Europe. First
Belgium, then Holland and Switzerland— countries,
like our own, imbued and sustained with the spirit
of liberty — we were one after the other to be bent to
the yoke, and these ambitions were fed and fostered
by a body of new doctrines and new philosophy
preached by professors and learned men. The free and
full self-development which to these small States, to
ourselves, to our great and growing Dominions over
the seas, to our kinsmen across the Atlantic, is the
well-spring and life-breath of national existence ; that
free self-development is the one capital offence in the
code of those who have made force their supreme
divinity and upon its altars are prepared to sacrifice both
the gathered fruits and potential germs of the unfettered
human spirit. I use this language advisedly. This is
not merely a material, it is also a spiritual conflict.
Upon this issue everything that contains the promise
and hope that leads to emancipation and fuller liberty for
the millions who make up the masses of mankind will
be found sooner or later to depend."
Mr. Asquith, Guildhall, September 4.
" The progress of the war has revealed what a terrible
and immoral thing German militarism is. It is against
German militarism that we must fight. The whole of
26 Facts about the War
Western Europe would fall under it if Germany were to
be successful in this war. But if, as the result of the
war, the independence and integrity of the smaller Euro-
pean States can be secured and Western Europe liberated
from the menace of German militarism — for it is not the
German people but Prussian militarism which has driven
Germany and Europe into this war — if that militarism
can be overcome, then, indeed, there will be a brighter
and a freer day for Europe, which will compensate us
for the awful sacrifices that war entails.''
Sir Edward Grey, letter to constituents,
" We want every penny we can raise to fight the
common enemy, and our first consideration ought to be
to win. That is our first consideration. Unless we do
that, there will be no country for municipalities or
Governments to administer. The first thing is that we
should come out triumphant in this struggle, and as
finance is going to play a very great part we must husband
our resources. ... Of course, if we have great victories,
and smashing victories, that is all right, but then they
may not come yet. We may have fluctuations, and
things may last long. We are fighting a very tough
enemy, who is very well prepared for the fight, and he
will probably fight to the very end before he will accept
the conditions upon which we can possibly make peace,
if we are wise. . . . We must work as partners and
work together — all parties, all sections of the people, the
Government, and municipalities — until we carry the old
country through to a triumphant conclusion."
Mr. Lloyd George, answer to deputation of
Municipal Associations, Times, September 9.
Facts about the* War 27
" I am a Radical who has always belonged — and when
this war is over trust still to belong — to the pacificist
school of British politicians. I confess that I was one of
those who never believed that Germany wanted war with
either France or this country. I knew that there were
German as well as English Jingoes, but I thought that
the serene good sense of the land of Kant and Goethe
would prevail against the colossal vanity of the insensate
megalomania of the school of Treitschke and Bern-
" After perusing once more Bernhardi's ' Germany
and the Next War,' which was first published in
October, 191 1, and considering what I once regarded its
wild vapourings in the light of recent events, I have
been driven reluctantly — almost mutinously — to the
conclusion that the intellectual and ruling classes of
Germany have for the last two generations been hoping
and preparing for this devastating war. On Monday,
August 3rd, I pleaded in the House of Commons that
our country should remain, if in any way possible con-
sistently with honour, neutral in the conflict. The
White Paper had not then been published, nor Sir E.
Goschen's dispatch, dated August 8th, giving an account
of his last interview with the German Chancellor. I
am now convinced that every consideration of policy and
of honour, even of existence as a Great Power, compelled
this country to take a hand in the war. Sir Edward
Grey and the Government have saved England from a
blunder which would have been worse than a crime."
Llewellyn Williams, M.P., Times, September 3.
11 German civil liberties were crushed under the heel of
an insolent caste. Its astonishing genius for organiza-
28 Facts about the War
tion became the instrument for military efficiency, and
Bismarck's schemes of State socialism were all governed
by the twin purpose of making the people subservient at
home and feared abroad. Even the nationalization of
the railways, admirable though its results have been,
was designed not as a measure of social amelioration,
but as a measure of military necessity. Every ingenuity
of the science of destruction has been developed with
absorbing energy, and no consideration of pity or human-
ity has been allowed to interfere with the decrees of the
god of blood and iron. That deity has no bowels of
compassion. He grinds the small nations he has under-
taken to protect under his iron heel and talks of a sacred
treaty as 'a scrap of paper.' He strews the seas with
his engines of death, regardless of what disaster they may
bring to the innocent. He flings his bombs from the sky
upon the sleeping city, scornful of women and children.
He burns towns and villages, and slaughters the old and
the weak, not in anger or in lust, but according to an
iron rule. He is merciless even with his own. He flings
them in close formation on certain death. They must
hack their way through or die. ' Better to lose an army
corps than change a plan.' It is all force — force— force
— soulless and cruel and barbaric. It is divorced from
all moral considerations — from mercy, from justice, from
pity. It is an idol of iron that stands to-day in a
sea of blood.
" It is this idol which Europe has to break. Until it
is broken to dust there can be no peace in this world.
We cannot live under the sanction of Attila and his
Huns and the clank of the sword of Zabern."
A. G. Gardiner, editor of the Daily News.
Facts about the War 29
" In this supreme struggle, in everything connected
with it until it is brought to a triumphant close, the head
of our Government must speak, not as the leader of a
party, but as the mouthpiece of the nation. We are
a peace-loving people, but never, I believe, in our history
has the whole nation been so convinced as it is to-day
that the cause for which we are fighting is righteous and
just. We strove for peace by all means to the last
moment, but when, in spite of our efforts, war came, we
could not stand aside. The honour and the interests of
Great Britain — and, believe me, they go together —alike
Mr. Bonar Law, Guildhall, September 4.
" The Prime Minister and the Leader of the Unionist
party in the House of Commons have symbolized on
this platform that unity of purpose which animates the
whole Empire — a unity which will not be broken, a unity
which will produce, and must produce, in the long run
that irresistible pressure upon the course of the war
which will carry into effect the aspirations to which they
have given such magnificent utterance. I feel through
every fibre of my being that at this great crisis of our
history, not only is there every call upon the manhood
of the nation, but we are all asked, whether old or young,
rich or poor, to make sacrifices for the common cause.
We are called to a task as great and noble, and as intim-
ately connected with the progress, prosperity, and the
morality of mankind, as any nation ever was in the whole
long history of human effort."
Mr. Balfour, Guildhall, September 4.
30 Facts about the War
" Earl Curzon said he did not care twopence on that
occasion whether he was a Conservative or anything else.
For the present the whole country was putting every-
thing in the background until it had seen this business
through, be it early or be it late.
" It was the duty of every eligible young man to come
to the assistance of his country, putting his personal man-
hood into the national pool. We were fighting because
in the circumstances it would have been a national
shame and dishonour to do anything but fight. They
were fighting against a system, a nation, and a man.
The system was believed in by the nation, and it was
impressed upon the nation by the man. It was our duty
to extirpate the system, to defeat the nation, and to
destroy the man."
Lord Curzon, at Aberdeen, September 8.
" I greatly appreciate the action of our Volunteers in
rallying so enthusiastically to my call for defenders of
the Empire. To those who have not already responded
to that call, and are eligible and can go, I say— Quit
yourselves like men and comply with your country's
demand. Enlist at once for the Ulster Division in Lord
Kitchener's Army for the period of war. You were
formed to defend our citizenship in the United Kingdom
and the Empire, and so preserve our civil and religious
liberty. Now the United Kingdom and the Empire are
threatened we must fight with our fellow-Britishers
until victory is assured."
Sir E. Carson, message to Ulster, August 8.
Facts about the War 31
" In past times, when this Empire has been engaged
in these terrible enterprises, it is true — it would be the
utmost affectation and folly on my part to deny it — the
sympathy of the Nationalists of Ireland, for reasons to
be found deep down in centuries of history, has been
estranged from this country. But what has occurred in
recent years has altered the situation. . . . To-day I
honestly believe that the democracy of Ireland will turn
with the utmost sympathy and anxiety to this country in
every trial and every danger that may overtake it. . . .
I say to the Government that they may to-day withdraw
every one of their troops from Ireland. I say that the
coasts of Ireland will be defended by our armed sons,
and for this purpose the armed Catholics of the south
will gladly join forces with the armed Protestant Ulster-
men of the north."
Mr. John Redmond, House of Commons,
4. Labour Party.
The Parliamentary Committee of the Trade Union
Congress has issued a manifesto to trade unionists of the
country on the war :
" The manifesto states that the Committee was
especially gratified at the manner in which the Labour
party in the House of Commons had responded to the
appeal made to all political parties to give their co-
operation in securing the enlistment of men to defend
the interests of their country, and heartily endorsed the
appointment upon the Parliamentary Committee of four
members of the party and the placing of the services of
the National Agent at the disposal of that Committee to
assist in carrying through its secretarial work."
32 Facts about the War
"At last the British people are obliged to own that
the German menace was real, and that the ' war scare '
they laughed at was a danger and must now be met.
We are not righting because we want to fight, we are
righting because we must. I say we must fight. It is
not only the professional soldiers and sailors who
must fight : we must all fight. We must fight or go
under ; more than that, we must win or go under."
Robert Blatchford, pamphlet
" Germany and England."
6. The Churches.
" I make this appeal to our Secretaries, who are, as
it were, the staff officers of our movement, to do all that
in them lies to make each branch a keen and effective
unit in the supreme effort which Church and Nation are
now called to make for the safety and honour of the
Empire. The first duty of a branch is to do all it can
among its own members and in the parish or neighbour-
hood to get young and able-bodied men to volunteer for
service either in the Army or in the Territorial Forces."
Quarterly letter of the Archbishop of
York, Church of England Men's Associa-
" In obedience to our treaty obligations and in support
of Belgium's just claim, our country had no choice but
to take up the sword if honourable dealing was to have
any chance of surviving in international affairs. The
cynicism and the duplicity against which we are thus
called to fight are worse than war, notwithstanding all
Facts about the War 33
its horrors and its miseries, and for my part I trust that
every Englishman will do his part in the cause of
righteous dealing and to free our civilization from the
maleficent and unscrupulous pride of military despotism."
Bishop of Hereford, Times, August 12.
"We are at war, not with the German people, but
with the insane presumption and the intolerable bureau-
cratic arrogance of the German Imperial system. As
the Prime Minister said, this war has been forced upon
us. We believe we are unsheathing our swords in a
just cause. We are fighting to fulfil a solemn inter-
national obligation and to vindicate the principle that
small nationalities are not to be crushed. We shall
suffer, whatever the outcome of the war. We shall
endure that suffering with quiet resignation and with
unswerving patience. We say, in the words of Shakes-
* Had I a dozen sons, each in my love alike ... I
had rather had eleven die nobly for their country than
one voluptuously surfeit out of action/ "
Archdeacon Wilberforce, Sunday,
" The Roman Catholic Bishop of Kildare, in a letter
which was read in all the churches of his diocese on
Sunday, August 9, says that it is the duty of his flock as
faithful Christians and loyal citizens of the great Empire
to which they are proud to belong to offer prayers for the
success of England and her Allies."
Times, August 11.
11 It is well for England that in this day when she is
bared for battle, she goes into the fight with the know-
34 Facts about the War
ledge that she is striking for the noblest of all causes —
for the sake of human faithfulness, for the sanctity of
treaties and of trust between nations."
The Tablet, August 8.
11 It is nearly certain that the close will be attained
only after a terrific and prolonged strife. Lord Kitchener
is said to reckon the period at two or three years, and in
one form or another the struggle may last even longer.
We cannot be satisfied with an inadequate representa-
tion in the field. The gallant brothers who have so
nobly fought our battle up till now must not fight in
vain. All they have achieved and all they have suffered
will come to nothing if they are not supported by con-
tinual reinforcements. We agree with the Spectator that
500,000 men is a very low estimate in view of the
stupendous numbers of our antagonists. We can easily
put in the field the number required. Five hundred
thousand men would mean about 1 per cent, of the
population, and there is every sign that 2 per cent, will
be needed ere the war is over.
11 Reasons why young men, and particularly Noncon-
formists, should enrol themselves :
" 1. The war was thrust upon us.
11 2. We went to war in order that we might be true to
our sacred and solemn obligations.
" 3. The German Emperor has cast out of his people
the spirit of liberty.
" 4. Our own life as a nation has to be fought for to
" 5. This is a war on behalf of the common people.
Facts about the War 35
The success of Germany would be the end of democracy
for many a weary year.
" 6. We are fighting for our children. Are they to be
born and live in tributary provinces of Germany ?"
Dr. Robertson Nicoll in British Weekly,
The Committee of Privileges of the Wesleyan Method-
ist Church, speaking on behalf of that body, has passed
a resolution declaring its conviction that the British
Government only drew the sword when plighted faith
and national safety left no alternative course, that
Britain's part in the war is one on which she can appeal
for victory to the God of Righteousness and Peace, and
that the liberties not of Britain only, but of Europe,
would perish if German militarism should conquer.
It also "recognizes with satisfaction and pride the
alacrity with which the young manhood of our Church
has responded and is responding to the call of their
country in its hour of need."
Times, September 12.
Message from Society of Friends.
11 We recognize that our Government has made most
strenuous efforts to preserve peace, and has entered upon
the war with a grave sense of duty to a smaller State. . . .
While as a Society we stand firmly in the belief that the
method of war is no solution of any question, we hold
that the present moment is not one for criticism but of
devoted service to our nation."
Published in Times, and circulated through-
out the Society, August, 1914.
36 Facts about the War
8. Lord Roberts.
" I am proud to be the first to welcome you as brother
soldiers and to congratulate you on the splendid example
you are setting to your fellow-countrymen, coming
forward, as you have done, to take your places in the
ranks as private soldiers, not seeking, as the vast majority
of men in your station of life are seeking, to be given
commissions as officers. We require hundreds of
thousands of soldiers, and of these only a minimum
number can be officers. Moreover, it is absolutely essential
that officers should be trained and disciplined — sufficiently
trained and disciplined to warrant their being entrusted
to command and lead soldiers in war. You are the pick
of the nation, highly educated, business men, men of
various professions, and you are doing exactly what all
able-bodied men in the kingdom should do, no matter
what their rank or what their station in life may be.
" I respect and honour you more than I can say. My
feeling towards you is one of intense admiration. How
very different is your action to that of the men who can
still go on with their cricket and football, as if the very
existence of the country were not at stake ! This is not
the time to play games, wholesome as they are in
days of piping peace. We are engaged in a life and
death struggle, and you are showing your determination
to do your duty as soldiers, and, by all means in your
power, to bring this war — a war forced upon us by an
ambitious and unscrupulous nation — to a successful
result. God bless and watch over you all."
Lord Roberts to the Royal Fusiliers,
Facts about the War 37
UNANIMOUS SUPPORT IN THE DOMINIONS
AND CROWN COLONIES.
On this the Germans had not reckoned.
11 You must remember that it is precisely the British
Empire which is the great object of attack — not
France, not Russia, not even Great Britain, but the
position of hegemony which the British Empire holds,
and the ideals which we stand for throughout the world."
Lord Milner at King's College,
" There are clear indications that the policy of the
dominions, though not yet planning a separation from
England, is contemplating the future prospect of doing
so. Canada, South Africa, and Australia are developing,
as mentioned in Chapter IV., into independent nations
and States, and will, when their time comes, claim formal
" The British Empire is divided from the military
point of view into two divisions : into the United King-
dom itself with the Colonies governed by the English
Cabinet, and the self-governing Colonies. These
latter have at their disposal a militia, which is sometimes
only in process of formation. They can be com-
pletely ignored so far as concerns any European
theatre of war."
Instead of this being the case, enthusiastic offers of
valuable help come in almost daily. Up to the present
the following are the chief :
38 Facts about the War
Australia. — The Royal Australian Navy has been
placed under the control of the Admiralty. This
1 battle cruiser,
5 light cruisers,
and a number of gunboats and destroyers, built and
These have already done good service, including the
capture of wireless stations in the New Bismarck
archipelago and the capture of German New Guinea.
Two contingents, one of 20,000 and one of 10,000 mem
have been raised.
Large gifts of men and provisions are being made by
the separate states. Export of foodstuffs prohibited to
any country save the United Kingdom.
11 Australia will support Great Britain with her last
man and her last shilling. ,,
Mr. Fisher, Prime Minister (Labour), of
Canada. — Navy of two light cruisers and two sub-
marines placed at disposal of Admiralty.
Contingents raised and trained of about 32,000 men,
chosen from over 150,000 volunteers.
One million bags (98,000,000 pounds, valued at
^"800,000) of flour sent as a gift.
Patriotic funds of over ^"1,000,000. War loan of
;£" 1 0,000,000.
Many provincial and private gifts, including :
Ontario : ^"100,000, and 250,000 bags of flour.
Quebec : 4,000,000 pounds of cheese.
Facts about the War 39
Alberta : 8,500 tons of oats.
British Columbia: 100,000 barrels of apples, and
1,200,000 pounds of salmon.
Nova Scotia : 100,000 tons of coal.
" As to our duty all are agreed, east and west, and
shoulder to shoulder, with Britain and the other British
Dominions in this quarrel. And that duty we shall not
fail to fulfil as the honour of Canada demands. Not for
love of battle, not for lust of conquest, not for greed of pos-
sessions, but for the cause of honour, to maintain solemn
pledges, to uphold principles of liberty, to withstand
forces that would convert the world into an armed camp,
yes, in the very name of the peace that we sought at any
cost, save that of dishonour, we have entered into this
Sir Robert Borden, Prime Minister of
Canada (Conservative), in Canadian House
of Commons, August 19.
11 Upon this occasion we invoke the blessing of God,
not the god of battles, but the God of justice and of
mercy, and it is with an ample trust in Providence that
we appeal to the justice of our cause. . . . Even those
who on principle do not believe in war, admit that this
was a just war, and that it had to be fought."
Sir Wilfrid Laurier, Leader of the Oppo-
sition (Liberal), in Canadian House of
Commons, August 19.
Newfoundland. — Contributes 850 men for land ser-
vice abroad, raises another 500 for home defence, and
increases naval reserve from 600 to 1,000.
Also gifts of timber.
4o Facts about the War
New Zealand. — The New Zealand naval force placed
under the control of the Admiralty. The battle cruiser
New Zealand of this force was prominent in the fight off
Heligoland on August 29. An Expeditionary Force has
Force of all arms of over 8,000 officers and men
are on their way to the front, and provision has been
made for drafts to keep the force at its full strength.
Naval Reserve and Garrison Artillery called out.
Large private gifts in money and provisions.
South Africa. — On the request of the Imperial
Government, which considers this the most effective
service she can render, South Africa has undertaken to
defend her own territories, which have been invaded
from German South-West Africa, and to push her own
attack into that territory.
11 There could only be one reply to the Imperial Govern-
ment's request. There were many in South Africa who
did not recognize the tremendous seriousness and great
possibilities of this war, and some thought that the storm
did not threaten South Africa. This was a most narrow-
minded conception. The Empire was at war; conse-
quently South Africa was at war with the common
enemy. Only two paths were open — the path of faith-
fulness to duty and honour and the path of disloyalty and
dishonour. To forget their loyalty to the Empire in this
hour of trial would be scandalous and shameful, and
would blacken South Africa in the eyes of the whole
world. Of this South Africans were incapable.
" Their duty and their conscience alike bade them be
faithful and true to the Imperial Government in all
Facts about the War 41
respects in this hour of darkness and trouble. That was
the attitude of the Union Government; that was the
attitude of the people of South Africa."
General Botha, Prime Minister of South
Africa, in South African House of Commons,
Sir Thomas Smartt, Leader of the Opposition, said
that the message which the Prime Minister by his speech
had given to the Home Country would send a thrill of
pride through the Empire — a thrill of pride at knowing
that in the day of danger South Africa had been true to
her trust and had remembered her obligations as well as
her privileges of free citizenship.
[The German machinations in South Africa succeeded
in inducing a small number of Dutch to revolt, but these
rebels are already in retreat and confusion, and there is
every sign that the common danger is uniting Dutch and
British as never before.]
The Crown Colonies.
Barbados. — ^"20,000.
British Guiana. — One thousand tons of sugar.
Ceylon. — The Planters' Association provides one
million pounds of tea for use of troops in the field.
Falkland Islands. — ^2,250 voted (about £1 per head
of population) ; also ^750 privately subscribed.
Jamaica. — Sugar to value of ^"50,000.
Leeward Islands. — ^"5,000.
Mauritius. — Two million pounds of sugar for Army
Rhodesia. — A contingent for Union Defence Force.
42 Facts about the War
UNANIMOUS SUPPORT OF INDIA.
One of the firmest convictions of Germany was that in
the event of Great Britain being engaged in a European
war, India would rise against the British raj.
The following opinions are frequently echoed in recent
German political writings :
" Now that a pronounced revolutionary and nationalist
tendency shows itself among the [Hindu population],
the danger is imminent that Pan-Islamism, thoroughly
roused, should unite itself with the revolutionary elements
in Bengal." Von Bernhardi.
The answer to this has been given in deeds — not
An expeditionary force of 70,000, partly British and
partly native, was at once sent, and further brigades are
ready when needed.
The keynote of India's response to the news that
Britain and the Empire were in danger was struck by
the Maharajah of Rewa. He wrote to the Viceroy :
11 What orders from His Majesty for me and my
The Rulers of the Native States, nearly seven hundred
in number, have, with one accord, offered their personal
services, the resources of their States, and all their troops
for the war. In some cases motor-cars and personal
jewellery have been offered, as a token that nothing is
being withheld. A large Indian Relief Fund has been
raised, and magnificent contributions made to the Prince
Facts about the War 43
of Wales's Fund. A few of the more prominent contri-
butions are as follows :
Nizam of Hyderabad, ^"400,000 for regiments in the
Maharajah of Mysore, Rs. 50 lakhs (^"333,000).
Several Durbars, especially Gwalior and Bhopal,
hospital ship the Loyalty.
Chief of Gwalior, large sums of money and a large
number of horses.
Maharajah Holkar, the Nizam, Jamnagur and other
Bombay States, money and horses.
Bikanir, camel corps.
The following chiefs have been selected from the many
volunteers for active service :
11 The Chiefs of Jodhpur, Bikanir, Kishangarh, Rutlam,
Sachin, Patiala, Sir Pertab Singh, Regent of Jodhpur,
the Heir-Apparent of Bhopal, and a brother of the
Maharajah of Cooch Behar, together w T ith other cadets of
noble families. The veteran Sir Pertab would not be
denied his right to serve the King-Emperor, in spite of
his seventy years, and his nephew, the Maharajah, who is
but sixteen years old, goes with him."
Statement in House of Commons, September 9.
" I doubt whether everyone in this country realizes
how great a thing it is that those ruling chiefs should
come forward in this way upon our side. I wonder, for
example, whether every one realizes that the Maharajah
of Mysore, whose munificent gift the noble Marquess
referred to, rules over a population which exceeds the
whole population of Sweden. I wonder whether anyone
calls to mind that the Maharajah of Gwalior, the Maha-
44 Facts about the War
rajah of Scindia, has more subjects than the King of
Denmark. Or that the Nizam of Hyderabad governs a
people twice as numerous as the people of the Nether-
lands, and three times as numerous as the people of Ire-
land. It is no small thing that those rulers, standing
where they do in our Indian system, should have come
forward without exception and given such practical proof
of their desire to help us."
Lord Lansdowne, House of Lords, September 9.
Loyal messages and offers also received from Mehtar
of Chitral and tribes of Khyber Agency, as well as
Khyber Rifles, and from the following Leagues and
Associations : The All India Moslem League, the Bengal
Presidency Moslem League, the Moslem Association of
Rangoon, the Trustees of the Aligarh College, the Behar
Provincial Moslem League, the Central National
Mohammedan Association of Calcutta, the Khoja Com-
munity and other followers of Aga Khan, the Punjab
Moslem League, Mohammedans of Eastern Bengal,
citizens of Calcutta, Madras, Rangoon, and many other
cities, Behar Landholders' Association, Madras Pro-
vincial Congress, Taluqdars of Oudh, Punjab Chiefs'
Association, United Provinces Provincial Congress,
Hindus of the Punjab, Chief Khalsa Diwan representing
orthodox Sikhs, Bohra Community of Bombay, Parsee
Community of Bombay.
Letters have been received from the most remote
States in India, all marked by deep sincerity of desire to
render some assistance, however humble, to the British
Government in its hour of need.
Statement in House of Commons, September 9.
Facts about the War 45
" The Aga Khan, who was making a tour among his
Ismalia followers in Africa when the war broke out,
has arrived from South Africa. He telegraphed from
Zanzibar to his adherents in India, the Persian Gulf, on
the Indian borderland, in Burma, the Straits Settlements,
and throughout Africa, directing them to place them-
selves and their resources unreservedly at the disposal
of the local British authorities, and to be prepared for
any duty that might be assigned to them.
11 In Zanzibar, under his direction, the Ismalias
organized a transit corps of motor-cars and motor and
ordinary cycles. His Highness has led the way for his
followers by offering to the Viceroy and the Secretary of
State for India his resources and personal service. Two
of his near relatives have been commissioned from the
Imperial Cadet Corps, but as no such facility existed in
his youth for the military training of Indians of position,
he has intimated his readiness to serve in any infantry
regiment as an ordinary private."
Times, September 14.
Last, but not least, from beyond the borders of India
have been received generous offers of assistance from
the Nepal Durbar ; the military resources of the State
have been placed at the disposal of the British Govern-
ment, and the Prime Minister has offered a sum of Rs. 3
lakhs to the Viceroy for the purchase of machine-guns or
field equipment for British Gurkha Regiments proceeding
over seas, in addition to large donations from his private
purse to the Prince of Wales's Fund and the Imperial
Indian Relief Fund.
To the 4th Gurkha Rifles, of which the Prime Minister
46 Facts about the War
is Honorary Colonel, the Prime Minister has offered
Rs. 30,000 for the purchase of machine-guns in the
event of their going on service. The Dalai Lama of
Tibet has offered 1,000 Tibetan troops for service under
the British Government. His Holiness also states that
Lamas innumerable, throughout the length and breadth of
Tibet, are offering prayers for success of the British Army,
and for the happiness of the souls of all victims of war.
The same spirit has prevailed throughout British
India. Hundreds of telegrams and letters received by
the Viceroy expressing loyalty and desire to serve
Government either in the field or by co-operation in India.
Many hundreds also received by local administrations.
These offers of help and sympathy come from all
classes and all creeds, and demonstrate that, for the first
time in history, the great continent of India, with its
many races and religions, is united in a single aim.
That aim is to show their devotion to the King- Emperor,
and their desire to remain part of the great Empire of
which he is Head.
The manoeuvres of Germany to secure, through
influence in Turkey, a channel through which she could
inflame the Moslem world have been discounted by these
practical demonstrations of the loyalty of the Moham-
medans of the British Empire.
OPINION IN THE UNITED STATES.
Germany naturally attaches great importance to
securing the sympathy of the United States. Count
Bernstorff, the German Ambassador at Washington, has
Facts about the War 47
been unwearied in his attempts to influence the Press,
and to circulate news said to be received from Germany
German societies in various large towns have appointed
committees "to visit and warn Anglo-American
An appeal addressed to the American nation by the
German Imperial Chancellor, Herr von Bethmann-
Hollweg, reached New York by mail, it having been sent
in this manner in order to evade the censors in London.
" The Emperor authorizes me," writes the Chancellor,
" to declare that he has complete confidence in the justice
of the American people, who will not permit themselves
to be hoodwinked by the campaign of lies which our foes
are waging. We shall win this monster war, thanks to
the great moral momentum which a just cause has given
to our armies." Centml NewSt
"The arguments employed do not appeal to the
American mind. With every desire to be fair to all
sides the overwhelming majority of editorial writers are
able to see in the war only • a cataclysm ' provoked by
German militarism with the object of making Germany
the predominant Power in Europe. When Professor
Mimsterberg and others denounce Britain as k a traitor
to the Teutonic race ' because she sides with Russia,
Americans recall the fact that until recent years Ger-
many's great ambition was a Russo-German alliance
against France and England."
Times own Correspondent, New York
48 Facts about the War
" After forty-five years of peace, Germany breaks its
record and plunges into war which not one of its defenders
can fairly justify. It is criminal aggression and nothing
else which led Germany to turn about, violate the
neutrality of Belgium, and force its way into France.
The campaign was clearly planned before the ultimatum
was issued to Russia. The Kaiser will go down into
history as the most patient War Lord that ever lived.
He waited and waited, and then selected the most
inopportune and most unjustifiable occasion to plunge
his country into war. The world is on the brink of
universal disaster. A madman in Europe moves and
disturbs the < balance of power.' "
American Hebrew, of New York (leading
The World, referring to the last interview of the
British Ambassador and the German Chancellor [see
Section I. (c)], recalls the fact that Magna Charta, the
Bill of Rights, the Declaration of Independence, the
decisions of the Supreme Court of the United States, are
also scraps of paper :
" The Hay-Pauncefote Treaty is a scrap of paper, and
one of the most brilliant moral victories won by President
Wilson is the Act of Congress which voluntarily re-
pealed the violation of the terms of that scrap of paper.
Respect for these scraps of paper measures a
nation's honour no less than its freedom. Our
democracy itself is only a scrap of paper, but it looses
forces no autocrat can stay. The German army is the
most wonderful military machine ever constructed by the
hand and brain of man, but in the final reckoning of
Facts about the War 49
history this ' scrap of paper ■ will prove more powerful
than all the Kaiser's legions."
World, New York, August 29.
" History will hold the German Emperor responsible
for the war in Europe. Austria would never have made
her indefensible attack on Servia if she had not been
assured beforehand of the support of Germany. The
German Emperor's consent to co-operate with England
in mediation would have put a stop to Austria's advance.
To doubt that Germany and Austria have been in prac-
tical alliance in this act of brigandage — for it deserves
no other name — is to shut one's eyes to all the signs."
Outlook, New York, August 13.
It would be a serious mistake to suppose that
Americans feel any hostility or jealousy towards Ger-
many, or fail to recognize the immense obligations under
which she has placed all the rest of the world, although
they now feel that the German nation has been going
wrong in theoretical and practical politics for more than
a hundred years, and to-day is reaping the consequences
of her own wrong-thinking and wrong-doing.
Professor Eliot, ex-President of Harvard
University, the foremost figure in the Uni-
versity world, and one of the most respected
men in the United States.
" The aggressive insolence of Austria - Hungary's
ultimatum to Servia, taken with the concession by the
latter of all the demands except those which were too
humiliating for their national self-respect, indicate that
the real cause of the war is other than that set forth by
the ultimatum. Knowing from past experience how the
50 Facts about the War
matter must be viewed by Russia, it is incredible that
Austria would have ventured on the ultimatum unless
she was assured beforehand of the consent of Germany
to it. The inference is irresistible that the substance of
the ultimatum was the pretext for a war already deter-
mined on as soon as a plausible occasion offered. The
cause of this predetermination is to be found in the
growing strength of Russia on recovering from her war
with Japan, together with the known deficiencies of the
French armaments, which were recently admitted. The
moment was auspicious for striking down France and
Russia before they regained their full strength."
Admiral Mahan (the foremost writer on
naval strategy in the United States) .
That Germany is not satisfied with her American
Press campaign appears from the following extract :
" After Germany has for so many years endeavoured
to dispose of these grotesque mistakes, and after
German policy during a decade and a half has been in
itself a refutation par excellence, it seems to be beneath
our dignity to go on appearing before the United States
in the attitude of one who thinks that he must justify
himself. We are far from misunderstanding or under-
estimating the goodwill of Count Bernstorff and Herr
Dernburg. We ask ourselves, however, what is the
sense of it all, and whether there is not a point at which
we, in our position, attacked on all sides, should regard
it as a duty of self-esteem to adopt the attitude that, if
people do not believe our words and deeds, we will
refrain from perpetual repetition of our words. When a
man like Roosevelt, whose importance as a statesman
Facts about the War 51
we never rated too high, but who has been in Germany,
and knows many prominent Germans, can talk of
1 Bernhardismus ' in Germany, the success of the
German effort ' to shed light ' seems to be of a very
Count Reventlow, Deutsches Tageszeitung,
VARIOUS QUESTIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN
ASKED, AND ANSWERS TO THEM.
(a) Could we have stopped the way ?
No. On July 23 Austria presented to Servia an
ultimatum making demands to accept which would have
been national suicide. Of this ultimatum the German
Government must have known and approved. Austria
declared that unless it was accepted verbatim within
forty-eight hours war would follow. Servia made a
humble reply, accepting nearly all the demands and offer-
ing to submit the other points to the Hague Tribunal.
This offer Austria insultingly rejected. In view of the
international agreements and treaties which were known
to exist, Austria knew that her attack on Servia would
bring Russia to Servia's aid, that Germany was bound in
that event to help Austria, and France bound in that
event to help Russia.
Sir Edward Grey made offer after offer for peace.
In most of them France, Russia, and Italy concurred ;
all of them Germany refused.
52 Facts about the War
(b) Could we have kept out of the war ?
Only by being false to our plighted word to France
and to Belgium.
Only by being false to our future, and seeing the
territories of France and Belgium, with their fine har-
bours, in the hands of a strong and unscrupulous enemy.
Only by being false to humanity.
" For my part, I say that sooner than be a silent
witness, which means in effect a willing accomplice
of this tragic triumph of force over law and of
brutality over freedom, I would see this country
of ours blotted out of the page of history.'*
Mr. Asquith, at Guildhall.
For a fuller answer to this question see Section I. :
" Why We are at War."
(c) Have we not done enough P
It is estimated that Germany can put 5,500,000 men
in the field, her male population being 32,000,000. This
means that she calls up one in six of her males of all
ages. France, out of a male population of 20,000,000,
manages to put some 4,000,000 into the field, or one in
every five males. Our forces are made up as follows :
Regular Army, with Reserves ... 400,000
Territorials ... ... ... ... 600,000
The New Army (nearly completed). . . 1,000,000
The Navy and Reserves ... ... 200,000
Total ... ... ... ... 2,200,000
Our male population is 21,000,000, so we have called
up one in ten.
The Oversea Dominions are sending us reinforcements,
and will increase the numbers as needed.
Facts about the War 53
We do not know how many will be needed, but
surely we can do as much for our Empire as
France is doing for hers?
" The very serious conflict in which we are now
engaged on the Continent has been none of our seeking.
It will undoubtedly strain the resources of our Empire,
and entail considerable sacrifices on our people. These
will be willingly borne for our honour and the preserva-
tion of our position in the world, and will be shared by
our Dominions beyond the seas, now sending contingents
and assistance of every kind to help the Mother Country
in this struggle.
" While other countries engaged in this war have,
under a system of compulsory service, brought their full
resources of men into the field, we, under our national
system, have not done so, and can therefore still
point to a vast reserve drawn from the resources
both of the Mother Country and of the British
Dominions across the seas. The response which
has already been made by the great Dominions abun-
dantly proves that we did not look in vain to these
sources of military strength, and while India, Canada,
Australia, and New Zealand, are all sending us powerful
contingents, in this country the Territorials are replying
with loyalty to the stern call of duty which has come
to them with such exceptional force. Sixty - nine
battalions have, with fine patriotism, already volunteered
for service abroad, and when trained and organized in
the larger formations will be able to take their places in
11 The Empires with whom we are at war have called
to the colours almost their entire male population. The
54 Facts about the War
principles we on our part shall observe is this, that while
their maximum force undergoes a constant diminution,
the reinforcements we prepare shall steadily and in-
creasingly flow out until we have an Army in the field
which in numbers not less than in quality, will not be
unworthy of the power and responsibilities of the British
Empire. I cannot at this stage say what will be
the limits of the forces required, or what measures
may eventually become necessary to supply and
maintain them. The scale of the Field Army which we
are now calling into being is large, and may rise in the
course of the next six or seven months to a total of
thirty divisions continually maintained in the field.
But if the war should be protracted, and if its fortunes
should be varied or adverse, exertions and sacrifices
beyond any which have been demanded will be required
from the whole nation and Empire, and where they are
required we are sure they will not be denied to the
extreme needs of the State by Parliament or the people. ,,
Lord Kitchener, House of Lords,
(d) Is not the fleet enough ?
The fleet is protecting the shores and the trade-
routes of the Empire, and every heart should thrill at
the way in which it is justifying our trust. Compare the
almost complete security of our own over-sea trade with
the absolute annihilation of that of Germany.
But the fleet alone cannot —
Save Europe from the curse of German militarism.
Save us from the danger to ourselves from a conti-
nent so dominated.
Facts about the War 55
Give us an adequate voice in the reconstruction of
Europe when peace comes to be made.
Note the following opinion of the great American naval
" If Germany succeeds in 'downing' both France and
Russia, she gains a respite by land, which may
enable her to build up her sea force until it is equal
or superior to that of Great Britain. In that case
the world will be confronted by the naval power of a
State not, like Great Britain, sated with territory, but
one eager and ambitious for expansion, and eager also
for influence. This consideration may well affect
American sympathies. n
Admiral Mahan, Times, August 5.
(e) Was not the War forced on by Russia ?
No. Russia to the end was willing to make peace on
the basis of Servia's moderate, and even humble, reply to
Austria (for which see Section I.).
See also the following extracts from telegrams of British
Ambassador at Petrograd (St. Petersburg) to Sir Edward
" The Minister for Foreign Affairs said that if Servia
should appeal to the Powers [as she did], Russia would
be quite ready to stand aside, and leave the question in
the hands of England, France, Germany, and Italy "
" His Excellency said that he would agree to anything
arranged by the four Powers, provided it was acceptable
to Servia " (July 29).
56 Facts about the War
"German Ambassador appealed to M. Sazonoff
(Russian Foreign Minister) to make some suggestion
which he could telegraph to German Government as a
last hope. M. Sazonoff accordingly drew up and handed
to German Ambassador a formula in French, of which
following is translation :
" * If Austria, recognizing that her conflict with Servia
has assumed character of question of European interest,
declares herself ready to eliminate from her ulti-
matum points which violate principle of sovereignty
of Servia, Russia engages to stop all military pre-
parations ' " (July 30).
On August 1 King George sent a personal telegram to
the Tsar : the following was the reply :
" I would gladly have accepted your proposals had
not German Ambassador this afternoon presented a note
to my Government declaring war."
(/) 4-re we not fighting for the barbarism of Servia and
Russia against the culture of Germany ?
No. Servia is fighting because Germany used the
quarrel between Austria and Servia as a pretext for pro-
voking war, in the hope that Great Britain would think
Russia was dragged in because she had obligations to
Servia, and could not see her crushed any more than we
could see Belgium crushed.
The "barbarism" of the land of Tolstoi may well
stand comparison with the " culture " of the land of
Nietsche and Von Bernhardi, of the land which has
sacked Malines and Louvain, and then, through its
Facts about the War $7
Emperor, declared such action " necessary though
(g) Have we not called in heathen Japan against Christian
Long before the war we had a Treaty with Japan, the
terms of which are known to the whole world. Japan
has solely come in to restore to China the port of Kiao-
chau, unscrupulously and piratically filched by Germany.
The Japanese ultimatum of August 16 made clear that
it made on Germany two demands only :
1. To withdraw immediately from Japanese and
Chinese waters the German men-of-war and armed
vessels of all kinds, and to disarm at once those which
cannot be withdrawn.
2. To deliver on a date not later than September 15 to
the Imperial Japanese authorities, without condition or
compensation, the entire leased territory of Kiao-chau with
a view to the eventual restoration of the same to China.
Sir Claude M. MacDonald writes to the Times :
" In a recent issue of your paper you printed an
appeal made by German theologians to • Evangelical
Christians abroad ' together with the dignified, reasoned,
and conclusive reply made by British theologians to the
same. The German theologians in their appeal state as
follows : ' Into the war which the Tsar has openly
proclaimed as the decisive campaign against Teutonism
and Protestantism heathen Japan is now also called
under the pretext of an alliance.'
" It was my privilege to be British Representative a
the Court of Tokyo from the commencement of the
5 8 Facts about the War
negotiations which preceded the war between Japan and
Russia until peace was signed; incidentally, also, it was
my great privilege to be an instrument, though a very
humble one, in the making of the alliance alluded to by
the German theologians. May I therefore venture to
state as follows ? The whole world knows with what
splendid valour our allies fought, but it is not known as
generally as I think it ought to be how straightforward,
honest, and dignified, and how loyal to us, was the con-
duct of these negotiations; it is not generally known
how appreciative of the stubborn valour of their
opponents, how courteous and chivalrous to them in
defeat, how cheery and patient in their own sufferings,
were the c heathen ' Japanese. It is not known, per-
haps, as I know it, that fullest information regarding
wounded Russians in the hospitals of Japan, for trans-
mission to their friends, was immediately obtainable, the
nature and gravity of the wounds, and in some cases
even the temperature of the patient, being telegraphed !
The present Viceroy of India, then Ambassador at
St. Petersburg, can bear me out as to this.
" I venture, therefore, to think that some Christian
nations, not forgetting Germany, have much to learn of
the Christian virtues of chivalry, courtesy, and honesty
from heathen Japan."
(k) Should we be any worse off if Germany won ?
We should each one of us be worse off in soul and in
body. The patriot would be humiliated ; even the inter-
nationalist would lose by the curtailing of freedom of
speech, of public meeting, and of the Press. E.g., Roald
Amundsen, the great Polar explorer, was in 1913 for-
Facts about the War 59
bidden to lecture in Norwegian in Schleswig-Holstein
because that language closely resembled Danish, the
native tongue of the people before they were conquered
" Six years ago I was in Berlin for a peace meeting.
The President had hardly said half a dozen sentences
when the military came and dispersed the meeting.
Would you like to have that in England ? Therefore
when I am asked what we are fighting for, my answer
again and again is liberty — liberty and home. ,,
Mr. Will Crooks, M.P., London Opera
House, September 10.
In Brussels, as soon as occupied by the Germans, the
newspapers were forced to appear in that language only.
The civilian would be put under the heel of the drill-
sergeant. What that means we may learn from the
story of Zabern in 191 3.
Zabern is a garrison town in Alsace, where the
smouldering ill-feeling between the conquered French
and the ruling Germans was fanned by the arrogance
of the military garrison. One of these (who belonged
to the Junker, or minor Prussian nobility class) named
Lieutenant Forstner, was reported by some of the
Alsatian recruits to have stated that if they (the recruits)
stabbed a Wackes who insulted them, no punishment,
but a reward, would be given. The name W aches is a
half-contemptuous local term for "Alsatian." The result
of this was to incense the civilian population, and as
the result of an incident in which the pupils of a school
jeered at a party of officers, the Colonel of the regiment,
Von Reuter, called out sixty men with loaded rifles and
60 Facts about the War
ordered them to arrest every civilian who did not retire.
About sixty were arrested, including the Judge and
Counsel of the civil court, who had just risen, and were
imprisoned all night. Lieutenant Forstner wounded
with his sword a lame cobbler whose wife jeered at him.
In Metz a man and his wife were imprisoned because
the latter jeered at a passing patrol. This was the
subject of interpellations in the Reichstag, and a vote
of censure on the Chancellor was passed ; but the
Prussian War Minister justified the conduct of the
officers. The vote of censure was not regarded by the
Government, and though the regiment was moved from
Zabern, no real punishment was meted out to the officers
concerned, and the Crown Prince sent a sympathetic
letter to the Colonel.
Some idea of German militarism in practice can be
gained from the conduct of the Governor of a conquered
commune of Belgium. The following was part of a pro-
clamation, issued to the inhabitants of Grivegnee, near
11 Important Notice.
" Commune of Grivegnee.
" Major Dieckmann gives notice to the persons present
" (i) Before 6 p.m. on the afternoon of September 6,
1914, all arms, munitions, explosives, and fireworks still
in possession of the citizens shall be given in at the
Chateau des Bruy£res. Whoever does not do this will be
liable to the penalty of death. He will be shot on the spot,
or executed, unless he can prove that he was not to blame.
Facts about the War 61
" (3) The Commandant must not meet any difficulties
when domiciliary visits are made. All rooms must be
thrown open on the summons. All opposition will be
" (8) I require that all civilians moving about in my
sphere of command, and especially those of Beyne,
Hensay, Bois de Breux, and Grivegnee, shall show
respect to German officers by taking off their hats, and
bringing their hands to their heads in a military salute.
In case of doubt whether an officer is in question, any
German soldier should be saluted. Anyone failing in this
must expect a German soldier to exact respect from him
by any method.
11 (9) German soldiers may search carts, bundles, etc.,
belonging to the inhabitants of the district. All dis-
obedience will be severely punished.
"(14) Anyone who circulates false news which might
injure the moral of the German troops, and also anyone
who in any way tries to take measures injurious to the
German Army, is held suspect, and may be shot on the spot.
"(15) While by the above directions the inhabitants of
the region round Fort B.I 1 1, are menaced with severe
penalties if they break these rules in any manner, these
same inhabitants may, if they conduct themselves peace-
ably, count on benevolent protection and succour on all
occasions when they may be wronged.
" (16) A requisition for a fixed quantity of cattle will be
made daily between 10 and 12 and 2 and 3 at the
Chateau des Bruy&res at the office of the cattle-com-
62 Facts about the War
" (17) Anyone who under the aegis of the emblem of the
Swiss Convention (i.e., the Red Cross !) harms or tries to
harm the German Army will be hung on discovery.
" (Signed) Dieckmann, Major-Commandant.
" (Correct Copy — Victor Hodeige, Burgomaster.)
14 Grivegnee, September 8, 1914." (Communicated by Official
German Views of British Soldiers.
11 Enlistments for the new English Army of 500,000
men which Kitchener has undertaken to set on its legs
are slow to come. Up to September 5 only about
250,000 mercenaries had come in, according to English
official reports, and Ministers and other well-known
Members of Parliament have had to whip up recruits by
holding public meetings. The text of the speeches is :
Prussian militarism to be exterminated.
" It is natural enough that Prussian militarism should
get on to the nerves of Englishmen, and especially of the
Right Hon. Grey and Co. — that Prussian militarism
which has swept like a hurricane over the Allied Armies,
so that of the English Expeditionary Force already barely
half survives. But what do the English shopkeepers,
w T ho buy their mercenaries to protect their money-bags,
know of German militarism ? What idea can these
island people, who look down upon a soldier as the most
despicable creature on earth, have of the sacrifices of the
nation which, in the struggle for existence, has been
forced by the jealousy of its neighbours to become a
nation of soldiers ? We have nothing but contempt for
these English talkers and politicians who venture to lay
their dirty fingers on our ideals. Let them study our
Facts about the War 63
casualty lists. Princes and workmen, Counts and
peasants, Catholics and Protestants and Jews, Socialists
and Conservatives, all dying for the common Father-
land. You are not playing for the same stakes, you
gentlemen of England ! You have no right to speak
until you put into the field the flower of your people, and
not the scum of your population."
Article on British and German Militarism, Sep-
tember 8, Cologne Gazette (chief semi-official organ
of the German Foreign Office).
[It may be noted that the German Army officers and
non-commissioned officers are " mercenaries " in the
same sense as the British regular forces — i.e., they adopt
arms as their profession, and make their living by it.]
11 It is my Royal and Imperial command that you con-
centrate your energies, for the immediate present, upon
one single purpose, and that is that you address all
your skill and all the valour of my soldiers to exterminate
first the treacherous English and to walk over General
French's contemptible little army."
The Kaiser to his troops, Aix-la-Chapelle,
Why we must fight to a Finish.
There are people who are already saying that we must
make terms with Germany as soon as possible, and not
impose on her too hard conditions. But it is only by
the most rigorous terms that we can secure —
(1) The compensation of Belgium for her sufferings
and losses. We were not able to save Belgium or even
to protect one Belgian village ; the least we can do is to
64 Facts about the War
(2) We cannot permit the Prussian domination of
Germany to continue. It has always been founded on
"blood and iron v (Bismarck's phrase). If the Kaiser*
saves anything out of the wreck of the war, he and his
dynasty will perpetuate the domination of Prussia.
(3) We must vindicate our own character as a fight-
ing race, and show the whole world, not Germany alone,
that the British Empire is a factor to be reckoned
with on land as well as at sea. The recognition of
this will go far to secure peace throughout the world.
BILLING AND SONS, LTD., PRINTERS, GUILPFORD
AMMUNITION FOR CIVILIANS
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OUR JUST CAUSE
Facts about the War for ready reference, prepared under
the auspices of the Royal Colonial Institute,
This little book has been prepared to furnish readers, speakers, or debaters, and any-
one interested, with the facts which have led up to the Great War, and have characterized
its conduct. Its scope will be comprehended from the following list of contents :
I. Why are we at War? II. Unanimity of Opinion in Great Britain and Ireland.
III. Unanimous Support in the Dominions and Colonies. IV. Unanimous Support in
India. V. Opinion in the U.S.A. VI. Terms of Enlistment. VII. Questions asked
THE WAR ON GERMAN TRADE
Hints for a Plan of Campaign
Introduction by SIDNEY WHITMAN
Being a revised reprint, in response to a large demand by manufacturers and merchants,
of a series of twenty articles published in the Evttvng News % showing how the Germans
have gained a hitherto unknown hold on British Trade, their methods, and the deficiencies
in our British system, with examples of German controlled firms under British names.
BOOKS OF THE MOMENT
HOW BELGIUM SAVED EUROPE
By DR. SAROLEA
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PRUSSIANISM & ITS DESTRUCTION
Being Part II. of t( The Great Illusion," with a new
Preface dealing with the present War.
By NORMAN ANGELL
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MEN AROUND THE KAISER
By Frederic William Wile. 2s. net.
THE GREAT ILLUSION
By Norman Angell. 2s. 6d. net.
By Norman Angell. 3s.0d.net.
WAR AND ITS ALLEGED BENEFITS
By J. Novikow. With Preface by Norman Angell. 2s. 6d. net.
London: WILLIAM HEIN EM ANN, 21 Bedford Street, W.C.